More nutritious and resistant kidney beans
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNal) researchers obtained five new varieties of beans after a decade of research; they will be planted in farms of Ubaté, Simijaca y Guachetá (Province of Cundinamarca).Bogotá D. C., 16 de mayo de 2016 — Agencia de Noticias UN-
The remaining 40% are low profile beans, they grow slowly and are more predominant in cold climates.
Among the features of these new varieties is the resistance to anthracnosis, presumably the most economically important bean disease in the world, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; and its high mineral content such as iron and zinc, which make it more nutritional.
The new varieties registered with the Colombian Agricultural and Livestock´ Institute National System are cargamanto rojo (characterized by white specks) Serranía, bola roja Chi, Iracá, Sutagao and Hunza, which are the product of crossbreeding Colombian beans with a Central American variety (G-2333) which is very resistant to anthracnosis.
The starting point of the research was gathering (in 2002) bean varieties at the bean world bank, which has 36,000 varieties of beans in Palmira (Province of Valle del Cauca). Later they carried out a series of crossbreeding tests during several years in UNal greenhouses.
“The crossbreeding process in different areas took us a couple of years and choosing promising material eight,” said Plant Breeding Specialist Professor Gustavo Ligarreto.
To obtain the new varieties they planted several different types of bola roja, cargamanto rojo and G-2333 beans in rows which were used as the genetic raw material; researchers used pollen and mixed it with stigma from other plants.
These five varieties are the result of a process carried out back in 2002 when they identified 7,000 filials produced by the bean with different resistance degrees. After they carried out a discrimination procedure based in the characteristics such as grain color, plant habits, flavor, planting speed and resistance.
More nutritious, more resistant
Anthracnosis is characterized for blackening of leaves and stalks. When beans are in the reproductive stage the disease can transfer to seeds which makes it look bad, hindering its marketing potential.
Using the molecular marker method researchers identified genes more resistant to the disease.
During the final stages of the crossbreeding they performed pathogenicity tests using samples of diseased plants, isolating pathogens and introducing them into different varieties with the purpose of identifying which were more resistant.
Regarding the nutritional element, they carried out mineral content tests on the new bean varieties. Substances such as iron and zinc, which amounts may be determining to offset nutritional deficiencies appeared in greater proportion; such as iron with 60 parts per million (PPM) and zinc at 34 PPM. These levels are above the traditional averages for minerals of this vegetable.
Approximately 110,000 hectares of beans are planted yearly in Colombia producing well over 140,000 tons of beans. However to supply internal demand the government imports close to 50,000 tons, most of which come from Canada.(Por: Fin/HEVC/DMH/APBL